Lat. In the civil law. A pleading on the part of a defendant, corresponding to the rebutter at common law. The third pleading on the part of the defendant. Inst 4, 14, 3; 3 BL Comm. 310. Qnss ab hostibns capiuntur, statlm ca-pientinm Hunt. 2 Burrows, 693. Things which are taken from enemies immediately become the property of the captors. Qnss ab initio inntilis fnit institute, en post faeto convalesoere non potest. An institution which was at the beginning of no use or force cannot acquire force from after matter. Dig. 50, 17, 210. Qua ab initio non Talent, en post faeto convalesoere non possnnt. Things invalid from the beginning cannot be made valid by subsequent act. Tray. Latin: Max. 482. Qnss aoeessionnm loonm obtinent, ea> tingunntur earn principales res peremp-ts” fnerint. Things which hold the place of accessories are extinguished when the principal things are destroyed. 2 Poth. Obi. 202; Broom, Max. 496. Quae ad una Amen loquuta sunt, mom debent ad alinm detorqueri. 4 Coke, 14. Those words which are spoken to one end ought not to he perverted to another. Qua eoharent personae a persona sonar ari nequenut. Things which cohere to, or are closely connected with, the person, cannot he separated from the person. Jenk. Cent p. 28, case 33. Qua eommnni lege derogant striete imterpretantur. [Statutes] which derogate from the common law are strictly interpreted. Jenk. Cent p. 221, case 72. Qua contra rationem juris introduota sunt, non debent trahi in consequentiam. 12 Coke, 75. Things introduced contrary to the reason of law ought not to be drawn Into a precedent. Qua; dubitationis causa to lien da in-seruntur eommunem legem mom ladunt. Co. Litt 205. Things which are inserted for the purpose of removing doubt hurt not the common law. Quae dubitationis toUenda causa contraotibus inseruntur, jus commune nom lasdnnt. Particular clauses inserted in agreements to avoid doubts and ambiguity do not prejudice the general law. Dig. 50, 17, 81.