Possessing the same rights, and being liable to the same duties. 2. Persons are all equal before the law, whatever adventitious advantages some may possess over others. All persons are protected by the law, and obedience to it is required from all. 3. Judges in court, while exercising their functions, are all upon an equality, it being a rule that inter pares non est potestas; a judge cannot, therefore, punish another judge of the same court for using any expression in court, although the words used might have been a contempt in any other person. Bac. Ab., Of the court of sessions, of justices of the peace. 4. In contracts the law presumes the parties act upon a perfect equality; when, therefore, one party uses any fraud or deceit to destroy this equality, the party grieved may avoid the contract. In case of a grant to two or more persons jointly, without designating what each takes, they are presumed to take in equal proportion. 4 Day, 395. 5. It is a maxim, that when the equity of the parties is equal, the law must prevail. 3 Call, R. 259. And that, as between different creditors, equality is equity. The condition of possessing the same rights, privileges, and immunities, and being liable to the same duties. Equality is equity. Fran. Max. 9, max. 3. Thus, where an heir buys in an incumbrance for less than is due upon it, (except it be to protect an incumbrance to which he himself is entitled,) he shall be allowed no more than what he really paid for it, as against other incumbrancers upon the estate.